Why China?The Palace Museum selected more than 130 cultural relics

2022-05-11 0 By

◆ Where does the name “China” come from?Why is our country called “China”?More than 100 Chinese and foreign journalists visited the Palace Museum on Feb. 14 to learn about China among more than 130 cultural relics selected from 30 museums across the country.These 130 pieces of precious cultural relics, ranging from the Stone Age to the Qing Dynasty, include stone tools, ceramics, jades, bronzes, gold and silver ware, calligraphy and painting, rare ancient books, seals and other categories, including he Zun, Changxin palace lanterns, Tibetan “Four Medical Classics” and other well-known national treasures.The exhibition will treat the ancient and profound Chinese civilization as a big river, and show the charm of Chinese civilization in three units of “source”, “flow” and “convergence”.”Why China” will be on display until May 4. If you are interested, please visit the Mandarin Hall of the Palace Museum.The origin of “source” water is also on the land of China, which has evolved over hundreds of millions of years. In the frequent interaction with all things in nature, our ancestors turned their observation of the world and their recognition of ethnic groups into all kinds of beautiful instruments.To the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the productive forces changed dramatically, the productive relations changed, the historical situation met, the theory of a hundred flourishing, unprecedented thought agitation and system exploration from the launch.The foundation was laid for the national character of people-oriented, unity of nature and man, law of nature, unremitting self-improvement, harmony without uniformity and the world for the common, and the system construction of a unified multi-ethnic country.He Zun (Baoji Bronze Wares Museum) Size: 38.8cm high, 28.8cm diameter, 14.6kg Weight He Zun is a bronze ritual vessel cast by the nobleman “He” in the early Western Zhou Dynasty to offer sacrifices to ancestors. The 122-word inscription on the bottom of the abdomen contains extremely important historical information.He Zun is known in the early western zhou dynasty first year bronze inscriptions, the inscription records the Zhou Cheng Wang Wunian construction east city of historical facts, and the history of the los letters patent for letters patent and other historical documents, have the effect of confirmed, history, and bronzes dating to the research in the western zhou dynasty history provides important data.The word “Zhong” and “guo” is also known as a phrase first seen in the inscription “Zizi China”.The Jade Dragon (In the Palace Museum) Size: 25.5 cm high, 21.8 cm wide, 60 cm long The image of the dragon in the Hongshan culture is the deification of various animal images, which reflects the change of our ancestors’ ideas, and is the product of the development of prehistoric religious sacrifice to a certain height.In hongshan culture, there are a large number of jade dragons unearthed in niuheliang site and its surroundings, which is related to the large sacrificial sites in Niuheliang. Jade dragons should be an important tool for prehistoric wizards to communicate with gods.Since then, the image of the dragon has gradually become a symbol of power and status.Simple and mysterious, this jade dragon is the largest of its kind ever seen.It is the idol of prehistoric Hongshan people and one of the sources of Chinese dragon culture and civilization.3. The Size of the Cong (Zhejiang Provincial Museum) : 9.9 cm in height and 8.4 cm in diameter, the Cong is an important ritual vessel of the Neolithic Age.The jade cong is delicate and white in colour with chicken bone.The section is slightly rounded square, the middle of the hole, the hole wall polished smooth, thin wall;The four corners are carved with animal face pattern of god and man, and the pattern combination is god man, beast face and god man. The forehead of god man is decorated with two sets of parallel string bands, and the face is carved with heavy circle eyes and a wide flat nose.This relatively abstract combination image of man and beast is the basic feature of jade cong decoration in Liangzhu culture.The use and shape of a cong may have been cylindrical and originally worn as a bracelet.Later, the outer circle is no longer round and the cong is round inside.After that, the height of the body continued to increase, and gradually developed into a thin and tall multi-section shape, and its wearing function became increasingly weakened, and finally evolved into a ritual ware.Jade bi of Liangzhu Culture (Palace Museum Collection) Size: 22.1 cm outside diameter, 4.2 cm inside diameter Jade bi has always occupied a very important position in ancient Chinese jade culture.The ancients believed that it symbolized the heaven and was the key tool for sacrificial rites, which was called “Cangbi ritual day”.Jade is also regarded as an important auspicious instrument, that is, auspicious instrument.The Hemudu culture is located in ningshao Plain and Zhoushan Islands on the southern bank of Hangzhou Bay. Its discovery is regarded as one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the 20th century in China.The bone plow is the most important farming tool of hemudu people. It is made of the shoulder blade of artiodactyl mammals such as deer and buffalo.The top handle of the bone sled is thick and narrow with a slightly square section. There are 16 rings of rattan recumbent on the shoulder and the end of the wooden handle clamped by the rattan.The lower edge is thin and wide, with friction marks in different directions.This piece of bone si is the only intact piece of prehistoric bone si with rattan binding wooden handle that has been discovered in China so far, epitomizing the level of agricultural development in Hemudu culture.Changxin Palace Lantern (Hebei Museum Collection) Size: 48 cm high The long Xinxin Palace lantern was unearthed from the tomb of Dou Wan, so it got its name because of the inscription “Changxin” on the lamp.The material of the lamp is qualitative fine gold of copper fine gold, modelling is a kneel sits the young maid-in-waiting that holds a lamp, by head, body, right arm, lamp holder, lamp dish, chimney 6 parts are composed.The lamp maid looks calm, with the left hand holding the lamp, the right arm up and the cuff hanging naturally.The lamp tray and lampshade can be opened and closed at will to adjust the direction of irradiation.The copper bit of the lamp plate can be used to insert candle, candle lit, curling smoke along the maid’s sleeve into the body, so as to keep the room clean.In addition, the head, sleeve, lamp plate and other parts can be removed, easy to clean.”Flow” collects water from multiple sources. In the long years, the category of The Chinese nation has been constantly developing and enriching in the integration of various ethnic groups within the region.Through mutual learning with other civilizations, the world has come to know China and China has listened to the world.In the dialogue and interaction with all things in nature, the Chinese nation has constantly updated its understanding of the universe, adjusted its relationship with the environment, and condensed the Eastern wisdom of the unity of heaven, earth and man.1. Bronze case of ox and Tiger (collected in Yunnan Museum) Size: 43.0 cm high, 76.0 cm long, 36.0 cm wide “The tiger bites the ox” is a common theme in Yunnan culture. The tiger symbolizes authority and power, while the ox symbolizes wealth and life.This “ox and Tiger Bronze case” is one of the bronzes unearthed from The Lijiashan site in Yunnan Province. It was used to hold sacrificial animals in sacrificial activities. Its shape and function are similar to that of the four-legged case Zu in central China.The bronze case takes the back of the zebu cattle as the case surface. After the tiger climbs and bites, there are young cattle born. The law of the jungle and endless life in nature can be instantly reflected.The naturalistic decoration of the ancient Dian artifacts is in sharp contrast to the more stylized animal motifs of the northern steppe nomads.The ancient Dian people had no written language, but the bronze wares unearthed at Lijiashan give us a true and clear picture of the social life of the Dian people at that time in a way that we have never seen before.2, “Jin GUI Yi Qiang Hou” gold seal (Gansu Provincial museum collection) size: 3.0cm high, 2.3cm side length printed in gold, camel button.Yin xiaozhuan “Jin Yi Qiang” five characters, font square, rigorous layout, straight strokes, presenting a typical Jin dynasty official seal style.Di and Qiang were ancient ethnic groups living in today’s Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces, and were headed by Kings, princes and ministers.From emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty to the Wei and Jin dynasties, the leaders of the Di and Qiang ethnic group were most honored by the central dynasty.At present, there are a certain number of seals of the inferior officials of the Di and Qiang nationality in the Wei and Jin dynasties, but there are few seals of princes, and gold seals are extremely rare.3, 8, and roller round card (gansu province museum) size: Lao 18.0 cm, 11.7 cm in diameter round card for iron, the two sides inlaid raised eight, the traditional Chinese five elements, the word is silver, one is back, positive read from left to right, Chinese translated into: “longevity in the force, the emperor imperial edict, the follower jeopardy”, dignified and beautiful.Fu fu fu are decorated on both sides of the bas-relief tiger pattern, tiger face is forward, hair sky, forehead seems to have a big two small three bao bead, front PAWS in front of the chest, tiger body hidden.The text on the back is the reverse of the text on the front.The card has a tether ring on it.The eight sibaven tiger symbol round plate reflects the historical fact that the Yuan Dynasty established a unified multi-ethnic country, and also provides physical materials for future generations to study the politics, military and social culture of the Yuan Dynasty.This kind of round card is also known as “round symbol”. The existing kind is made of iron, and the inlaid text is gold and silver, and the level is distinguished by the gold and silver material of the inlaid text.It is recorded in the History of The Yuan Dynasty: “In case of military urgency, the letter was gold and round, followed by silver.”The terracotta Figure of a camel (shanxi Museum collection) Dimensions: 37.0 cm high and 30.0 cm long The camel carries a heavy skin pouch on its back, filled with rolls of silk and cloth.A short-haired “beard” sits on a high hunchback, nibbling a pie as if enjoying a rare respite from a long journey.This vivid terracotta figure is from the Tomb of Dhu (Yinhu) In the Sui Dynasty.Hu Lubu is one of the six tribes in Gaoche, Mobei, with the tribal name, the Northern Wei dynasty annexed, moved to the north of Shanxi.The well-known folk song of the Northern Dynasty was first sung by Hu Yuche’s great-grandfather 斛律金 and recorded in history books.From the northern Wei dynasty to the Sui Dynasty, The Hulu family had been completely integrated into the melting pot of the Chinese nation.From the terracotta figure, we can see the social side of the Silk Road where various ethnic groups traded and lived in harmony.5. Square mirror with Five Yue patterns (collected by the Palace Museum) Size: 12.3cm square on each side.Button and button seat mountain shape, peak for the mirror button, as yue.And button as the center, up, down, left and right out of a mountain pattern, radially distributed outward, like four mountains, mountains decorated with pine trees, birds or animals.The four mountains are connected by the patterns of distant mountains and near water, water birds and vegetation, forming a vibrant scene surrounded by mountains, which also reflects the deep emotion that tang people poured into mountains and vegetation when they enjoyed the peaceful prosperity.From Confucius, from the Rites of Zhou, to the Emperor Qianlong, he gave ten offerings, two thousand years of Confucianism.From Yan Zhenqing pen vigorous, carved family character;Turhutete home long distance, read local deep feelings.The concept of respect for benevolence, courtesy, Taoism and righteousness, and the unity of the family and the country, is deeply rooted in the blood of the Chinese nation.The four great inventions, farming silkworm weaving, porcelain cast iron, architecture and gardens, tea, medicine, astronomy and geography…All scientific and technological achievements embody the spirit of exploration of the Chinese nation in the pursuit of new knowledge and for the benefit of millions of people.Five thousand years of Chinese wisdom, continuous context, poetry and ink still fragrance.Silver hook interaction, engraved thousands of years by meaning.Shibi dust, the teacher of the eternal.Ritual sequence qiankun, music and heaven and earth, wenhua as hui, is the “Four Libraries”.Created, enjoyed and inherited by the people, these spirits, skills and classics are not only splendid treasures of Chinese civilization, but also have made indelible contributions to the progress of human civilization.1. Three saints (Confucius Museum) Size: 142cm, 76cm, three saints, ink on silk from Ming Dynasty, old collection of Kong Fu.The picture depicts three sages: Confucius, Yan Zi and Zengzi.The elder in the middle of the picture is Confucius, wearing a ceremonial crown and a black coat. Disciple Yan Hui is standing on the left, and disciple Zeng Can is standing on the right.Both of them wear a headband and a large sleeved long shirt linked to the collar.Back lined with pine and cypress, combined with the Analects of Confucius: “the age of cold, and then know pine and cypress after wither also”, a metaphor for the virtue of a gentleman.Three clothes to fly small script full book “Analects of Confucius,” because of the tiny handwriting, only close to watch carefully can be found, amazing.The whole painting has a unique idea, skillfully combining calligraphy, painting art and Confucian classics, with unique style.2. Yan Family Temple Monument (rubbings, Xi ‘an Forest of Stele Museum) Size: 338 cm, 156 cm This monument was erected by Yan Zhenqing for the establishment of the Yan family temple.According to the tang Dynasty system, Yan Zhenqing, as the crown prince, could set up a temple to worship the four generations of gaozu yan, Qinli Yan, zhaofu Yan, and Weizhen Yan.Tablet Yang yan shi source, all the celebrities and Yan Zhenqing father, brothers and other names and official positions.Yin Yin recorded yan family ancestral house to change the hall for the temple room god kitchen.The inscription was written and written by Yan Zhenqing himself, which is one of his later calligraphic masterpieces. It is of great significance to the study of Yan Zhenqing’s family and the family temple system in the Tang Dynasty.Yan Zhenqing integrity, to the name of righteousness at the time.This inscription describes yan’s ancestors’ “virtue, calligraphy, writing, learning” and other contents. “They all play their ancestral virtues and perform their family voice.” It is the embodiment of the Chinese tradition of following up and raising filial piety, respecting the survival of the deceased, reaping the family and reaping the family, and also has the intention of securing the land and ruling the country.Size: 12.5cm high and 8cm caliber, the Cup was cast in gold, with dragon ears and elephant feet. The body was carved with flower patterns and inlaid with red, sapphire and pearls.On both sides of the cup, the four characters of “Jin ‘ou Yonggu” and “Qianlong Year” are cast.This cup is regular in shape and ornate in decoration. It integrates a variety of precious materials.Since the beginning of yongzheng years, Jin ‘ou Yonggu cup as the Qing Dynasty emperor held the “opening ceremony” at the time of the New Year’s Day special cup, with the implication of “wish political harmony and pray for jiangshan Yonggu”.This small wine cup, like a witness of the Forbidden City’s New Year wishes, carrying the wishes of time and prosperity, is also the emperor’s responsibility to the country and the world.Remnants of writing after four or five generations of shu (sichuan museum) size: 40 cm long, 21.5 cm wide, 7 cm high official in ancient China official gujin suanxue congshu Confucian scriptures on stones, known as Confucianism, “writing” is for scholars to study and the standard of text, which is the basis of the school to write books for specification language, the promotion of education play an important role.Shu after writing is the longest time-consuming in writing of all of China, the largest one, including “mencius” were organizing thirteen Confucian classics, its already engraved scriptures, qiqi tushuo moment again, the note in parallel, and the school time accurate, style in neat formation, long-term treasure by Stanford university, formally finalize the design of Confucianism “thirteen classics” and on the formation of a Confucian classic model of “literature” has an important influence.The Imperial Collection of Imperial Sikuquanshu was a large series of official books of the Qianlong Dynasty of the Qing Dynasty, compiled by Ji Yun and others in accordance with the edits.The vast book consists of four sections, including classics, history, sub-sections and collections. It contains almost all important classics in the past.The Confucian classics are collected in the Classics department, the history department gathers the history books of the past dynasties, the sub-department picks the hundred schools of learning, and the collection gathers poems, lyrics, songs and fu.”Four according to the spring, summer, autumn, winter four colors” decoration, for inspection, after a total of seven copies, divided into the south, north seven pavilions.The Imperial Imperial Siku Complete Book comprehensively sorts out the classics of traditional Chinese culture and clearly presents the classical literature system of China. Although some of the documents have been deleted, altered, destroyed or completely destroyed in the compilation, the book is still large in scale and can be regarded as an integrated work of Chinese classical culture, from which almost all disciplines can find the origin.The compendium of the Imperial Collection of Four books consists of four volumes, one for the classics, one for the history, one for the zi, and one for the collection. This volume is the catalogue of ji Yun’s manuscripts.”Why China” is the eternal proposition of the Chinese nation.Today, facing changes unseen in a century, at a crucial stage of national rejuvenation and at the intersection of the two centenary goals, it is all the more important for us to take history as a mirror, open up the future, work hard, and forge ahead with courage, so as to leave behind for future Generations the answer to the question “Why China?”When future generations look back at our cause, I hope they can proudly say, “This is China!” just as we look back at our predecessors’ achievements.(Editing by Ma Xiaoxian)