After the September 18 Incident, Zhang Xueliang’s wrong judgment earned him the title of “General without resistance”
In the 1930s, when China was just coming through a war of warlords, Chiang Kai-shek formally unified the country.However, the Chinese, who had suffered a lot from war, did not have time to breathe, the Japanese extended their claws of aggression to the long coveted northeast China.For years, the northeast was ruled by zhang Zuolin, a bandit-turned-warlord.Zhang Zuolin died in the Hands of young soldiers in Japan, young zhang Xueliang inherited his father’s career.But only three years later, the September 18 Incident broke out.September 18, 1931, the seventh day of the eighth month of the Chinese lunar calendar, a few days after the Mid-Autumn Festival.At the Zhonghe Theater in Qianmen, Peiping, Mei Lanfang was performing his house play The Cosmic Front.Theater box sat a prominent figure, he is the Northeast army young zhang Xueliang.Earlier, Zhang xueliang was hospitalized in Peking Union Medical College Hospital because of typhoid fever and is still recuperating after recovering from the illness.Years later, Zhang xueliang told visiting scholar Zhao Jie in the United States, “I was in Beijing at that time, recuperating in the hospital, and my illness was just right.That day I invited the British ambassador to see Mei Lanfang’s performance.This play is a charity performance I put on for “liaoxi Flood”.When the call came, Mei Lanfang was singing to the “Golden palace pretend crazy” section.He Was accompanied by He Shili, zhang xueliang’s aide and a family friend.That day he accompanied zhang Xueliang to the opera with his father He Dong.He remembered that while they were listening, someone outside the box asked to see them.He Shili recalled, “At about ten o ‘clock, tang Guozhen, the adjutant chief, came to tell him,” Please take the phone call from Shenyang. The Duke of Han (Zhang Xueliang) asked him to do it for him. “Xuan came to tell Him that Rongzhen had said to the chief of staff, and he had to take the call himself.The duke of Han left the banquet and never came back, without any explanation.His father was very unhappy with his rudeness!The next morning I was told this unfortunate event had occurred!”He Shili said the event is “September 18 Incident”.At 10 o ‘clock on the night of September 18, 1931, the south Manchuria Railway in Liutiaohu, a suburb of Shenyang, heard a dull explosion. The Japanese army blew up a section of the South Manchuria Railway, and then dropped three bodies dressed in Chinese military uniforms to blame the Chinese army.The Japanese Kwantung Army, on the pretext of pursuing the deserters, then attacked the northeast army’s main camp.At that time, there were only two northeast local military and political leaders in Fengtian: Rong Zhen, chief of staff of the Northeast Army, and Zang Shiyi, chairman of Liaoning Province.Rongzhen hurried to contact Zhang Xueliang in Peiping.Zhang Xueliang said in an interview with reporters the next day, “LAST night I received a telegram from Shenyang and was shocked to learn of the sino-Japanese conflict. However, there is no resistance force in northeast China, and there is no reason for war. Shenyang has already taken over and will not resist.In fact, a few days ago, Zhang Xueliang on the Japanese abnormal has established policy.On July 6, he said in a telegram: “If we start a war with Japan at this time, we will lose!If I fail, Japan will ask me to cede my land and pay reparations, and Northeast China will be doomed forever!”On September 18, 1931, Chiang kai-shek got up early and went to the Mausoleum of Sun Yat-sen with Song Meiling.Then he attended the “State house” meeting.At 9:30 p.m., we boarded yongsui and headed for Nanchang to supervise and suppress communists.Until the evening of September 19, a full day later, he received the news of the September 18 Incident.He wrote in his diary: “Last night, Japanese pirates attacked our Shenyang Arsenal without provocation and occupied our barracks.In fact, not more than 12 hours later, by noon on September 19, all the Japanese troops had taken shenyang.During this time, the Northeast army offered no resistance at all.”September 18th Incident” let Zhang Xueliang fall “do not resist the general” name.So as the Northeast army young marshal Zhang Xueliang why did not have any resistance, lost the northeast to Japan?In an interview with a Japanese television station in 1990, Zhang xueliang said he believed that “war is not in the interests of the Japanese government, and the Japanese government should restrain the Kwantung Army.”It was because of this wrong judgment that all the three northeastern provinces were occupied by the Japanese Kwantung Army within a few years after the September 18th Incident.And for the ordinary people of northeast, “9 · 18” come too suddenly!After the Japanese Kwantung Army captured Shenyang, they began to attack Jinzhou.The Nationalist government and all circles of the country have called the Northeast army to defend Jinzhou.Zhang Xueliang was ordered to keep jin northeast army in the Japanese attack to withdraw to pass.He said, “With my troops in a corner of the northeast against the strength of the whole neighboring country, I will be separated from each other by strength and weakness. No matter how excited I am, THERE will be no luck.”On January 21, 1932, the league of Nations investigation mission, which the Chinese people were looking forward to, was finally established.The fact-finding mission was composed of representatives from Britain, the United States, France, Germany and Italy, and was led by Sir John Litton, a Briton.”Now Japan is using this kind of violence to occupy a territory full of rice porridge, and to this violence, tens of millions of property have been sacrificed and thousands of such civilians have no claim,” Zhang said in a speech to the visiting investigation team.On September 4, 1932, the Litton Investigation Team came to the conclusion that Japan was responsible for the September 18th Incident and that northeast China was part of China’s territory.On February 24, 1933, the League of Nations Congress with 42 votes in favor, Japan 1 vote against, through the resolution: “Do not recognize the Puppet Manchukuo!”Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in protest.The expectation of international intervention that the Chinese had hoped for was also dashed!